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Olga Lopaeva
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    Olga Lopaeva


Olga S. Lopaeva

Novosibirsk State University, Faculty of Psychology

Introduction. Our attitude to other nations is extremely complex variable, which is dependent on many factors. Traditionally investigations of this problem are conducted by using verbal designations of nations. But there is good reason to believe that an ethnical appearance of a man is one of determining factors (Lurye S.V., 1997), so we think that graphic images of nations (or - more correctly - of anthropological types) are more coincident stimuli in such researches.

Aim. 1) to carry out a study directed at a comparison of data derived from two sources: verbal and graphic questionnaires; 2) to reveal factors influencing on attitude to other nations.

Method. In present research, we make an attempt to investigate the problem of attitude to other nations using two types of questionnaires. The first of twelve questions (Appendix 1) aimed at showing up of attitude toward thirty three nations (Appendix 2) and knowledge about them. The second questionnaire consists of the same twelve questions with the exception of the third question that is replaced by the following one: Do you know what nation is this image of? The main difference is that respondents express their feelings toward twelve graphic images of anthropological types (Appendix 3), which were taken from textbook of anthropology (Roginsky, Levin, 1979). The first questionnaire was given to 70 persons, the second one was given to 60 persons. The data were analyzed by Factor Analysis.

Results. It was found that received factor matrixes are almost identical. In both cases three factors emerged, which were rotated to simple structure using a Varimax criterion. Significance was taken at 0.50, which is considered to be a rigorous level, and an eigenvalue was greater than unity (>1.00). However there is one significant distinction. All items of the second matrix significantly and solely load on one factor, but two confounded items were identified in the first matrix, which load significantly upon two sets of factors. The factors are 1) the factor of population (items ¹¹ 10, 11, 12); 2) the factor of knowledge (items ¹¹ 1, 2, 4) and 3) the factor of attitude (items ¹¹ 5, 6, 7, 8). Interestingly enough that identification of anthropological types of the Mongoloid and Negroid races is coupled with a quantity of mistakes. This fact collides with answers that respondents of the first questionnaire gave (central tendency of the third question is equal to 3.4, that is evidence of good knowledge of appearance of nations). According to our research, positive attitude to a certain nation concerns with the appearance of its representatives (question 4), the wealth of nation, and population (the first factor). It is impossible not to say that knowledge concerning with population is often contrary to fact.

Discussion. Identity of factor matrixes notwithstanding the fact that identification of images concerns with mistakes is evidence that respondents express their attitudes not to the concrete nation, but to a more general type (for example, to the race). Use of graphic images gives more pure factor matrix and shortens the time of testing, that is why it is more preferable than use of verbal stimuli. Superficial resemblance and moderate figures of population contributes to positive attitude to a nation. It possibly concerns with ethological, not psychological factors.

Conclusion. The questionnaire with graphic images of anthropological types might be applied for ethno-ethological studies, because it is more convenient and more correspond to "the spirit of ethology". The results of our study denote that ethnocentrism remains one of determinant factors, and we believe that familiarity with cultures of other nations will promote better understanding between nations and people.

Appendix 1 ITEMS OF QUESTIONNAIRE (*.doc, 20Kb)
Appendix 2 LIST OF NATIONALITIES (*.doc, 22 Kb)
Appendix 3 ANTHROPOLOGICAL TYPES (*doc, 262 Kb)